INTERNATIONAL PARTY FOR THE
WORLD GOVERNMENT INSTITUTE
III. GENERAL THOUGHTS ON THE WORLD GOVERNMENT
IV. THE POWER WHICH ESTABLISHES AND MAINTAINS THE WORLD GOVERNMENT
V. THE PROCESS TO ESTABLISH THE WORLD GOVERNMENT
"Preliminary Draft of a World Constitution",*2 (hereafter cited as "Preliminary Draft")
"A Constitution for the Federation of Earth: A Meta Index", (hereafter cited as "Constitution for the Federation")
"Constitution of the World", (hereafter cited as "Constitution of the World").
These 3 drafts are not basically different in their thoughts. In these drafts, the government is basically composed of the legislative parliament, the executive, and the judiciary. In this paper, author mentions the legislative parliament and the executive, because they are the most basic bodies of the World Government and it is most difficult to elect the members of them. The essential contents of these drafts are, omitting the detail, summarized below.
In the "Preliminary Draft", the parliament is composed of the Federation Assembly and the Legislative Parliament. Each member of the Federation Assembly is basically elected for each 1 million citizen. For the Legislative Parliament, 81 members are elected by the Federation Assembly from the candidates list which was made by the Federation Assembly from each country, and 18 members are elected by the Federation Assembly from the candidates list which was made by the Federation Assembly from the worldwide important organizations. These worldwide important organizations are, at the first election, appointed by the General Assembly of United Nations and, later, are appointed by the the Legislative Parliament. Thus Legislative Parliament is composed of 99 members. The legislative power is vested in the Legislative Parliament. The President is elected by the Federation Assembly from the candidates list submitted by the Federation Assembly and nominates the Prime Minister of cabinet.
In the "Constitution for the Federation", the parliament is composed of the House of Peoples, the House of Nations, and the House of Counsellors. The House of Peoples is directly elected in proportion to population. The House of Nations is composed of national delegates elected or appointed by procedures to be determined by each national government. The members are
1. One national delegate from each nation of at least 100,000 population, but less than 10,000,000 population.
2. Two national delegates from each nation of at least 10,000,000 population, but less than 100,000,000 population.
3. Three national delegates from each nation of 100,000,000 population or more.
4. In case of nations with less than 100,000 population, they may join in groups with other nations to send representatives.
The House of Counsellors is composed of 200 counsellors and is elected by the members of the other 2 houses from nomination made by the teachers and students of universities and colleges and of scientific academies and institutes. Any legislative measure may be initiated in either House of Peoples or House of Nations, and shall become effective by vote. The House of Counsellors can initiate any legislative measure, which shall be submitted to the other 2 houses. The World Executive is composed of a Presidium and an Executive Cabinet. The Presidium shall be composed of 5 members, 1 to be designated as President. The presidency of the Presidium shall rotate each year. Each member of the Presidium shall be a member of the World Parliament. From among the nominees list submitted by the House of Counsellors, the Presidium shall be elected by vote of the 3 houses. The Executive Cabinet is composed of from 20 to 30 members. Each member of the Executive Cabinet shall serve as the head of a department or agency of the World Administration. Nomination for the members of the Executive Cabinet shall be made by the Presidium and each member is elected by the vote of 3 houses. The Secretary General of the World Administration is nominated by the Presidium and confirmed by absolute majority vote of the entire Executive Cabinet. The Secretary General assists in coordinating the work of the Senior Administrators of the several departments of the World Administration.
In the "Constitution of the World", the parliament is composed the House of Representatives, the Senate, and the Business Committee. The House of Representatives is established in each Region. But the definition of the Region is not clear. Each member is elected according to the population. The Senate is established in the Federation. The members are elected by the Nation-States. The Senate is composed of 20 Senators from each region. The Business Committee is composed of the Committees in the Federation and in each Region. The members of Business Committee are elected by a vote among the largest 1 thousand Transnational Corporations in each Region. The Business Committee of the Federation is composed of 1 member from each Region. The number of members of Business Committee of each Region is equal to about 5 percent of the members of the House of Representatives of each Region. All bills of the Federation and Regions shall originate in respective house (House of Representatives and Senate). The bills become law through each House of Congress and Business Committee. The executive power is vested in the President of the Federation and in the President of each Region. The President is elected in a general election.
While we have seen basic compositions of the World Government in 3 draft constitutions, the processes to establish the World Government are written in the "Preliminary Draft" and the "Constitution for the Federation".
In the "Preliminary Draft", the General Assembly of the United Nations decides the process of election of the members of the Federation Assembly.
In the "Constitution for the Federation", the draft shall be submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations and to each national government on Earth, with the request that the World Constitution be submitted to the national legislature of each nation for preliminary ratification and to the people of each nation for final ratification by popular referendum. Then, the World Constituent Assembly, the organ which made this constitution, shall issue a Call to all Nations, communities, and people of Earth to ratify this World Constitution for World Government. It will also establish some preparatory commissions such as the Ratification Commission, the World Elections Commission, etc. and will convene Sessions of a Provisional World Parliament under some conditions including sufficient funds. After this, the process of implementation is divided into 3 stages. On the first operative stage, a minimum of 25 nations with a population more than 100,000 ratify the Constitution. On the full operative stage, omitting the second stage, the Constitution is ratified by 80 percent or more of the nations comprising at least 90 percent of population.
On the other hand, Dieter Heinrich writes another way.*3 He advocates the consultative assembly like the European Parliament and called it the United Nations Parliamentary Assembly.
Then, what power can establish and maintain the World Government? Author's view is as follows. It is neither the military power nor the economic power. The power is neither material nor economic. It is spiritual. It is the people's support. Only the people's support can establish and maintain the World Government. Many historical changes show this. Fundamentally, old power was overthrown and new power was established by the people's support. Discussion about this power is important but author proceeds assuming this thought is correct.
Then, how can we get the people's support? In author's view, the support will gather to the system where people elect their representatives by their direct vote. Here, author proposes a system which can get the ultimate people's support. It is the World Parliament with 2 houses. Each house is composed of 1 thousand members respectively and the members are elected in proportion to population. Let us call them provisionally the North House and the South House. If the world population is 6 billion, 1 member is elected from each 6 million people because the number of members is 1 thousand. So, if China has 1 billion and 200 million people, it can send 200 members to each house. If the population of India is 900 million, India can send 150 members. As for USA, if its population is 260 million, the member is 43. As for Japan, if the population is 130 million, the member is 22. Such apportionment will not be accepted easily by the countries like USA or Japan. But it will get the support ultimately.
In the former way, organizations such as the WFM (World Federalist Movement) will play an important role. NGOs such as the WFM and the United Nations will promote the process. In this way, great efforts have been made for many years.
The latter way can be called a revolution based on the people's support. The first step is to establish the international parties of which the main policy is to establish the World Government. Each party is composed of a headquarters party in 1 country and a branch party in each country. Here, we assume the number of parties is 2 and provisionally call them the World Party and the Earth Party. The common point of 2 parties is
Each party has a headquarters party in 1 country and a branch party in each country. The main policy is to conduct the election to elect directly the members of the World Parliament. The apportionment of members is in proportion to the population of each country. In the early stage, the World Parliament is a consultative assembly without the legislative power.
Each party fights the election emphasizing its main policy on the World Government. Thus, for example in Japan, if the World Party got the power, it will make a law for the election and conduct the election. The number elected is, according to its population, 22. In other countries, for example USA, the Earth Party may get the power, but the main policy is same. It will conduct the election and elect 43 members. Elected representatives from each country, even if the election was conducted in only 2 countries, can form a part of the World Parliament. Other countries can join later to this part of the World Parliament by sending the representatives elected according to their population. Thus, from only a small part of the entire World Parliament, it can develop to the true World Parliament. The World Parliament in the early stage should be a consultative assembly without the legislative power like European Parliament. Needless to say, it is too dangerous to vest the legislative power in the early stage. Even if it is without the legislative power, it will get appropriate support because the members are directly elected by people. In the appropriate stage of process, it should get the legislative power. The constitution for the World Government can be made after the World Parliament with the legislative power has been established. The answer to the question whether or not this process is possible will be given by the people's support. No thought can give the final conclusion.
Among the above 2 ways for the World Government, which way is possible? Or, is there any other better way? With regard to the former way, USA is dominant. It can decide the Secretary General of the United Nations using the veto and is playing the leading role in the international affairs. Although many recommendations and requests about the World Government have been submitted to the United Nations, the United Nations does not move toward the establishment of the World Government. This seems to be because USA does not move toward this direction. USA cannot be dominant in the truly democratic World Government. So it will not promote the movement toward the World Government. In author's view, if this thought is correct and this situation continues too long, the situation will move through the latter way. Namely, the world will move toward the revolution. The international parties like the World Party and the Earth Party will become necessary.
*1 URL is http://www.w-g.jp/wgi/wgi.htm. At present, this subtitle has been deleted.
*2 Only Japanese version was available. This draft was written in 1948 under the name of the President of University of Chicago and translated into Japanese. Japanese title is "Sekai Kenpou Shikago Souan," in Sekai Rempo Undo 20 Nenshi (Tokyo: Sekai Rempo Kensetsu Domei, May 1969), pp. 419-29.
*3 Dieter Heinrich, The Case for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (New York: World Federalist Movement, October 1992) (only a photocopy was available).
Name: Toshio Suzuki
Address: 1-158 Nakakanasugi, Matsudo city, Chiba Prefecture, 270-0007, Japan
"World Government Institute"